the thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located on the front of the neck. Its malfunction can cause diseases such as hypothyroidism (decreased hormone production) and hyperthyroidism (increased hormone production). Weight loss or gain, insomnia, nervousness, changes in bowel rhythm, cold or excessive heat, nodules or increased cervical volume may reveal thyroid changes.
In hypothyroidism, the thyroid does not function properly. The decrease in hormone production causes a reduction in metabolism, which often manifests with vague symptoms, such as weight gain, muscle pain, tiredness, constipation, cold intolerance, dryness of the skin and depression. The discovery of the disease occurs after medical evaluation, which can request, when necessary, the dosage of the hormone in the blood.
Conversely, excess thyroid hormone leads to an acceleration of metabolism, with increased energy consumption by the body. As a result, the person becomes more accelerated, has increased appetite and, despite this, weight loss. Excessive sweating, diarrhea and a rapid heartbeat may also occur. The main cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves’ disease. It is an autoimmune problem, in which, for an unknown reason, the body does not recognize its own cells and produces antibodies against them (auto-antibodies). This autoimmune reaction leads to increased thyroid function and changes in the eyes, making them look “bouncing”. The discovery of the disease, after medical evaluation, is confirmed by laboratory tests.